Christ the Messiah (Gleanings in Christology #2)

In Jesus’ day, the messianic puzzle lay in pieces. God promised that Eve’s descendant would crush Satan’s head (Gen ‪3:15). This seed was through Abraham (Gen 17:19) and associated with David (Ps 2:7). Added were promises about various anointed figures (priests, prophets, and kings). Messiah would be a human servant (Isaiah 42:1). Other texts pointed to a heavenly being (Daniel 7:13). How would this come together?

Some sought a king to free them from Rome. Some focused on a ruling priestly messiah. Turning from politics, others looked for a righteous teacher. Each justified their picture from the Old Testament.

Peter’s confession was a breakthrough: “You are the Messiah, Son of the living God” (Matt ‪16:16). Jesus became a magnet, drawing the pieces together. Messiah would be king and priest (Ps 110:1,4; Heb 7). Messiah would be suffering servant (Isa 53; Phil 2:4-8) and glorious Son of God (Phil 2:9-11; John 1:4, 18). He would be a human being and the divine Savior.

The puzzle is now complete and perfectly meets our need.


Reasons to Study Christology (Gleanings in Christology #1)

The health of our lives and churches depends on how we understand and follow Christ. Christianity stands or falls with its christology. Here are four reasons for a deeper knowledge of Jesus.

First, there are depths to the doctrine that we have not discovered. A full account of Jesus is inexhaustible (John 21:25).

Second, our spiritual well-being depends on being reshaped by biblical teaching. The corrective for unhealthy habits that misshape our lives is the wisdom found in Christ.

Third, while biblical truth never changes (Eph 4:14; Heb 13:9; Jude 3), the circumstances of our lives do. We must come afresh to God’s Word for the wisdom of Christ that meets our daily needs.

Finally, the study of Christ is for God’s glory and our good. The Father is pleased when much is made of His Son. It is amazing, but through the proper knowledge of Christ, we can come to participate, not only in salvation but in God’s very life (2 Pet 1:3-4).

The Three-Legged Stool of Spirtual Maturity

The longer I live the more I am convinced of three important and interconnected keys to a healthy spiritual life:

First, the intentional cultivation of the “center” of one’s own Christian existence. Our first responsibility is to tend to our inner life in God. This is a private matter that cannot be faked. Sooner or later your hidden life will manifest itself openly. We MUST abide (or dwell) in Christ. The business and distractions of this world press in, but you dare not neglect the care of your own soul. If you must, leave everything else undone but this: cultivate your true identity, your life in God.

Second, a long, patient, and persistent faithfulness. This does not imply spiritual perfection, just the opposite: it is a Spirit-enabled commitment to a life of repentance and faith. How much time is lost, how much joy missed, how many opportunities overlooked, because in discouragement at our own failures we neglect repentance and faith – the very signs of the in-breaking of Christ’s kingdom! There are no shortcuts to Christian spiritual maturity; it comes from a long faithfulness through the ups and down, the trials and blessings of life. So, friend, get up and keep going!

Finally, (and all three are needed, like the three legs of a stool), find a way to serve others. The more you cultivate your spiritual center in God, and the more you conform to Christ by His Spirit, the more you will imitate God’s own life – which is others oriented. The inner life of God is self-surpassing. God’s heart is revealed in the incarnation and the self-sacrificial way of the cross. Enough of self-centeredness! Participate in and serve the community around you. It is not about “me.” Well, one should not pretend to deny one’s own reality. Let’s put it this way: it IS about “me,” but our best “me” is “me” for others. Are you discouraged today? In your weakness, find someone to serve.

So here are the three important ingredients to a healthy spiritual life: look in and cultivate your life in God, look up to Christ and keep following Him despite any failures (his way is easy and his burden light), and look outward to a hurting world, God may want to meet someone’s need through you.

Press on, dear brothers and sisters.

Theology Awakens a Grateful Heart


The words of this blog title are those Katherine Sonderegger uses to begin her book on the doctrine of God (xi). Her study of theology proper seeks to celebrate the Oneness of God, bringing a needed corrective to the contemporary focus on the Triune life of God. She confesses: “We hunger to know the Oneness of God, rest in it, and that hunger is the Spirit’s gift to us, quickening our appetite for divine things, our search into the Mystery of God, the pilgrimage of the Christian life” (23). Her work clearly illustrates a recent turn in theology toward the apophatic: an exploration of the (biblical ) truth that the One true and living God is, in a very real sense, beyond human comprehension. In her second volume, she will turn her attention to the Trinity.  Many are eagerly waiting to see how she integrates her almost shocking (but refreshing) affirmation of the Oneness of God with his Triune self-revelation in the gospel.

Less poetically, Paul Hinlicky states in the introduction to his theology: “the purpose of theology is to know God.” His focus is singularly Trinitarian:  he declares, “we intend that the doctrine of the Trinity permeate the whole presentation” (xxi). Toward the end of this volume, Hinlicky writes (in his typically profuse way; he cannot contain his words), “In Christian faith to know God is daily to die to sin, daily to rise to new life of love seeking justice, living in hope of the promised inheritance of one’s place and time in the eternal life of the Father and the Son in the Spirit in the coming in power and glory of the Beloved Community at the Parousia of Jesus Christ” (865).  Hinlicky’s Beloved Community is a delightful offering of a much more cataphatic approach to the doctrine of God: a celebration of the (biblical truth) that God has abundantly made himself known and knowable through the gospel revelation of his Son in the Spirit.

These two works on theology, published in the same year (2015), could not be more different: one calls for a renewal of the confession of the Oneness of God within the Christian faith, and the other is a mature offering in the more dominant stream of Trinitarian resurgence.

Both passionately call on us to know and enjoy the God of Holy Scripture, the God of the Gospel. Both voices are worth hearing.

For an interesting and helpful essay that explores the recent move toward restraint in our confident explication of the Trinity with its renewed attention to the mystery of God’s Oneness, see E. Jerome Van Kuiken, “‘Ye Worship Ye Know Not What’? The Apophatic Turn and the Trinity.”

Van Kuiken points us to an integrative approach.  He writes, “If apophaticism (i.e., the confession of the mystery of God’s Oneness) and cataphaticism (i.e., the explication of the revelation of God’s Triune life) exist in a dialectic, so too do unity and plurality within God” (22).

Van Kuiken quotes Gregory Nazianzen (d. 390 AD): “No sooner do I conceive of the One than I am illumined by the Splendor of the Three; no sooner do I distinguish Them than I am carried back to the One . . . .When I contemplate the Three together, I see but one torch, and cannot divide or measure out the Undivided Light” (22).

Surely, theology of this sort “awakens a grateful heart,” and leaves us delighting in and longing for the coming of the Beloved Community.  Like all proper theology, it leads to worship. As Sonderegger concludes in her preface, “There is no study, no examination nor understanding, without a heart seared by intercession, by repentance, by worship and praise….This is the proper dogmatic form of the doctrine of God: the intellect, bent down, glorified, in prayer” (xxi).  Amen.


God’s Wisdom, the Law, and the Good News (Romans 10:4-10)

This essay on Romans 10:4-10 was originally intended to be included in my book Wisdom Christology but was dropped due to the publisher’s space limitations.  I am posting a slightly revised version of it here as a pdf file via this link.

In Romans 10:6-8 Paul appropriates and interprets Deut 30:12-14 in a way that may sound strange to our modern ears. If we proceed carefully, however, Paul’s exposition will give us insight into God’s wisdom in Christ.

I had also drafted an essay on Gal 4:1-7 which I intend to post here in the future.

The original book, without the Romans and Galatians chapters, is available on Amazon.

The first chapter of Wisdom Christology is available as a pdf file at the Westminster Theological Seminary bookstore site.  You can find it here.  Click on “sample pages.”

Amazing Grace


Salvation by grace alone is an essential doctrine. Sola gratia (by grace alone) was a great watchword of the Reformation. God’s people rediscovered the wonderful truth that God saves us not by our works, but by his redeeming grace alone. Perhaps no passages captures this truth like, Ephesians 2:8–9. “For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith — and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God — not by works.”

In recent history the truth has been celebrated by songs like: “Amazing grace! How sweet the sound that saved a wretch like me!” “Marvelous grace of our loving Lord, grace that exceeds our sin and our guilt.” “Wonderful grace of Jesus, greater than all my sin; how shall my tongue describe it, where shall its praise begin?”

The other day I heard someone explain salvation using the acronym for grace as “God’s gift at Christ’s expense.” This captures much of the truth.

Here is another definition: “Grace is the effective presence of the triune God to save and empower.” Grace involves the powerful, personal, relational presence of God. Grace enables us to call God “our Father,” to have union with the resurrected Christ, and to live in the power of the Holy Spirit. At the end of 2 Corinthians Paul declares, “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you.”

This amazing grace freely given to us in the gospel saves us from sin, Satan, and death, and it also empowers us to live for Christ. Rejoice in God’s saving grace today.

ISIS Seeks a Stronghold in the Philippines

Many have asked about the stability of the Philippines in light of the conflict between government forces and a puritanical Muslim coalition. At the moment the problem is isolated to an area on the southern island of Mindanao. But more than 300 people have died in fighting with the Islamic State-linked group which seized Marawi on May 23. The attack by a group known as “Maute” (the name of an important Muslim family in the area) and its allies on the island of Mindanao is a warning that the Islamic State seeks to build a base in Southeast Asia.

Government Forces

It is important to recognize that Islam is not just now coming to the Philippines. It has been in the southern areas for many centuries (long before the Americans or the Spanish arrived). Notice the mosques with their minarets in the picture.

Marawi Mosques

The beginnings of Islam in the southern islands actually goes back to the seventh century when Arabic traders and Sufi mystics arrived.. When the Spanish landed in 1521, and the islands became part of “the Philippines” (after King Philip) the explorer Magellan found the thirteen (!) Islamic people group already established, each with their own geographical location, language, culture, and aristocratic leadership. For the next four hundred years, the Spanish colonizers remained at odds with the Muslim Filipinos. By the time the Americans came at the end of the 19th century, and a new republic was established, the Muslim clans were an impoverished minority.

The cultural divide between Muslim Filipinos and what has been essentially a Roman Catholic majority intensified in the 1970s. The global rise of a politicized and puritanical form of Islam, combined with local political problems, led to an Islamic separatist movement. The various factions of this movement have at times engaged in armed conflict with government forces. So in the period leading up to the present crisis Filipino Islam has been a unique mixture of at least seven elements:  Orthodox Islam, folk beliefs, a datu (chief or aristocrat) led tribal social structure, a sense of marginalization from the majority, and a growing separatist aspiration.

What is new is the radicalization of the Filipino Muslims by the forces of such groups as Al-Qaida and ISIS with their extremely violent ideology.  Unfortunately fertile soil (both metaphorically and literally) has been found. It is against this background that the battle for the City of Marawi is taking place. It is part of a much larger challenge.

We need to be praying for peace and safety for all the people in Mindanao area. Pray also that the Church will be ready to endure hardship and compassionately share the love of Christ in the long years that now lay ahead for the Southern Philippines.

Here is a helpful article that explains the military situation.

Here is an important analysis from 2016 that should have warned government authorities of the imminent danger.